TNPSC Thervupettagam

Bharat Ratna and 2024 winners

April 20 , 2024 60 days 790 0

(இதன் தமிழ் வடிவத்திற்கு இங்கே சொடுக்கவும்)

Introduction to Bharat Ratna:

  • It was established in 1954 as India's highest civilian award.
  • Its eligibility extends to individuals regardless of race, occupation, or gender.
  • Recipient receives a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a medallion.

Criteria and Selection:

  • It is awarded for outstanding service or performance in any field.
  • Prime Minister recommends directly to the President so no formal recommendations are needed.
  • It is limited to a maximum of three awards annually.

Exceptional Recognition:

  • Primarily it is awarded to India-born individuals.
  • Exceptions include Mother Teresa, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and Nelson Mandela.

Amendments and Posthumous Awards:

  • Originally it disallowed posthumous awards but it was amended in 1955.
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri was the first posthumous recipient.

Exceptions and Recent Instances:

  • The guideline for the Bharat Ratna, initially limiting recipients to three per year, was first exceeded in 1999.
  • At that time, it was honouring Jayaprakash Narayan, Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, and Ravi Shankar.
  • In 2024, the rule was again surpassed, with five recipients being conferred the award.

2024 awardees:

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan, Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao, Chaudhary Charan Singh, Karpoori Thakur, Lal Krishna Advani as recipients.

Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan

  • Dr. M S Swaminathan is the “Father of the Green Revolution in India”.
  • He is an agricultural scientist and agronomist.
  • Green Revolution: A period of agricultural transformation in the mid-1960s, adopting high-yield crop varieties.
  • MS Swaminathan's Role: Instrumental in leading India's Green Revolution.
  • Development of High-Yield Varieties: Collaborated with Dr. Norman Borlaug to develop wheat varieties for increased grain yield.
  • Farmer Adoption: Established demonstration plots to show farmers the benefits of new grain varieties.
  • Impact: India's wheat production doubled, reducing the need for grain imports.

Ensuring Food Security and Farmer Welfare

  • Food Security Advocacy: MS Swaminathan aimed beyond increasing crop yields to ensure food security for India.
  • He advocated for an effective public distribution system to provide food grains to poor consumers and alleviate hunger.
  • He transformed India from a drought-stricken nation reliant on US imports in the 1960s to being self-sufficient in food by 1971.
  • He was recognized with the World Food Prize in 1987 for contributions to agricultural science and food security, establishing the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) with the prize proceeds.

National Commission on Farmers

  • As the commission's chairman, Swaminathan issued reports recommending minimum crop support prices, faster inclusive growth, and policies to address farmer suicides.
  • He was Instrumental in developing the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act of 2001 to safeguard farmers' interests.

Awards and Recognition

Details

Honorary Doctorates

Received over 80 honorary doctorates from universities worldwide.

Member of Parliament

Served in the Rajya Sabha from 2007 to 2013.

International Awards

Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership, 1971

Albert Einstein World Science Award, 1986

World Food Prize, 1987

UNEP Sasakawa Environment Prize, 1994

Franklin D Roosevelt Four Freedoms Medal, 2000

Mahatma Gandhi Prize of UNESCO, 2000

National Awards

S.S. Bhatnagar Award,1961

Padma Shri, 1967

Padma Bhushan, 1972

Padma Vibhushan, 1989

Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament, and Development, 2000

Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award, 2007

Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao

Early Life and Career:

  • He was born on June 28, 1921, in the former Nizam's Hyderabad state.
  • He engaged in freedom fighting, academics, and literature.

Prime Ministership and Literary Contributions:

  • He served as India's 9th Prime Minister from 1991 to 1996.
  • He published 'SahasraPhan,' a Hindi translation of the renowned Telugu novel 'Veyi Padagalu.'

Economic Reforms:

  • He aimed to dismantle the license raj's restrictions and reduce bureaucratic hurdles to enhance Indian industries' competitiveness.
  • He initiated economic liberalization, orienting policies towards the market and fostering private and foreign investment.

Foreign Policy Initiatives:

  • He established diplomatic relations with Israel.
  • He introduced India's Look East Policy.
  • He enhanced relations with the United States, reversing decades of strained ties.

Constitutional Amendments:

  • He oversaw the enactment of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments Act, empowering local bodies.

Chaudhary Charan Singh

Early Life and Political Career:

  • He born in 1902 into a middle-class farming family in Meerut.
  • He started his political journey with the Congress party, holding various ministerial positions.

Leadership Roles:

  • He became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1967.
  • He briefly served as Prime Minister in 1979 before resigning amidst political turbulence.

Contributions and Legacy:

  • A pivotal figure in the Janata Party, he was known for his writings on land reforms and agricultural policies.
  • He renowned for spearheading crucial legislative initiatives aimed at agricultural reform, including significant land reform bills.

Karpoori Thakur

Early Life and Political Mentorship:

  • Known as "Jan Nayak," he served as Bihar's 11th Chief Minister twice.
  • A freedom fighter and staunch socialist mentored by leaders like Jayaprakash Narain, Dr. Rammanohar Lohia, and Ram Nandan Mishra.
  • He represented the Nai community, an Extremely Backward Class (EBC) among OBCs, entering politics in 1952 and serving as a legislator until 1985.

Chief Ministerial Term and Reservation Policy:

  • During his 1977 tenure, the Mungeri Lal Commission recommended reclassifying backward classes, including weaker sections of Muslims.
  • It introduced a pioneering reservation model in 1978.
  • It was allocating 26% reservations with specific quotas for OBCs, EBCs, women, and economically backward classes among upper castes.
  • It preceded the Mandal Commission report advocating for 27% reservations for Other Backward Classes.

Policy Implementations:

  • He promoted Hindi and Urdu as the second official language.
  • He waived school fees and strengthened Panchayati Raj.

Lal Krishna Advani

  • Birth: He was born in Karachi on November 8, 1927, during pre-Partition India.
  • Early Affiliation: He associated with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
  • Entry into Politics: He joined politics through RSS and became a member of Bharatiya Jana Sangh in 1951.
  • Rajya Sabha Membership: He elected to the Rajya Sabha in 1970, starting significant political involvement.
  • Co-founder of BJP: He co-founded the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in 1980.
  • Deputy Prime Minister: He served as India’s Deputy Prime Minister from 2002 to 2004.
  • Contributions: He contributed to economic reforms, infrastructure development, and India's nuclear tests of 1998.

 

List of Bharat Ratna awardees till date

Serial No.

Recipient

Year

1

Chakravarti Rajagopalachari

1954

2

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

1954

3

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

1954

4

Bhagwan Das

1955

5

Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya

1955

6

Jawaharlal Nehru

1955

7

Govind Ballabh Pant

1957

8

Dhondo Keshav Karve

1958

9

Bidhan Chandra Roy

1961

10

Purushottam Das Tandon

1961

11

Rajendra Prasad

1962

12

Zakir Husain

1963

13

Pandurang Vaman Kane

1963

14

Lal Bahadur Shastri

1966

15

Indira Gandhi

1971

16

Varahagiri Venkata Giri

1975

17

Kumaraswamy Kamraj

1976

18

Mother Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa)

1980

19

Vinoba Bhave

1983

20

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

1987

21

Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran

1988

22

Bhim Rao Ramji Ambedkar

1990

23

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

1990

24

Rajiv Gandhi

1991

25

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

1991

26

Morarji Ranchhodji Desai

1991

27

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

1992

28

Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhai Tata

1992

29

Satyajit Ray

1992

30

Gulzari Lal Nanda

1997

31

Aruna Asaf Ali

1997

32

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

1997

33

Madurai Shanmukhavadivu Subbulakshmi

1998

34

Chidambaram Subramaniam

1998

35

Jayaprakash Narayan

1999

36

Amartya Sen

1999

37

Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi

1999

38

Ravi Shankar

1999

39

Lata Dinanath Mangeshkar

2001

40

Ustad Bismillah Khan

2001

41

Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi

2009

42

C. N. R. Rao

2014

43

Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar

2014

44

Atal Bihari Vajpayee

2015

45

Madan Mohan Malaviya

2015

46

Nanaji Deshmukh

2019

47

Bhupendra Kumar Hazarika

2019

48

Pranab Mukherjee

2019

49

Karpoori Thakur

2024

50

Lal Krishna Advani

2024

51

Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao

2024

52

Chaudhary Charan Singh

2024

53

Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan

2024

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